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War Scandals 

(2nd EDITION) 

of the 

Borden 
Government 



as told in the 

House of Commons 

and s^AT^orn to before 

The Public Accounts 

and other 

Conimittees 



,,/: • Publication No. 47 



or 



INDEX. 

«» 

Page 

War Scandals 3 

Sir Sam Hughes' Letter to Premier, May 13th 1915. 4 

Horses 8 

Oliver Equipment : 12 

Boots 14 

Binoculars 15 

Motor Trucks 16 

Ross Rifles 18 

Clinical Thermometers 19 

Field Dressings 19 

Drugs and Medical Supplies 20 

Submarines 21 

Revolvers and Pistols 23 

Morrisburg Customs Port thrown open 24 

Shield Shovels 26 

Camp Groimds 26 

Lumber: 28 

Burning of Clothing 28 

The Lindsay Arsenal 29 

American Horses in Preference to Canadian 30 

Nickel 39 

Bicycles 31 

Housewives 31 

Premier's statement in regard to scandal 32 



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^VAR SCANDALS 

The Story as Taken From the Records , 

That page of our history which tells of the outrageous war 
scandals perpetrated either with the connivance or through the 
gross negligence of the Borden Government should bring the 
blush of shame to every true citizen of Canada. When war 
broke out in August of 1914, apd the determination of the German 
forces became clear, it was evident that no small contest was 
before the world, but that many years of preparation warranted 
the belief that a prolonged and desperate struggle would be 
waged. 

The entry of Great Britain into the war appealed to her 
sons wherever found, and no heartier response to the call of duty 
was ever given than that of Canada. When in the special Session 
of the Canadian Parliament held in August, 1914, the great 
Liberal leader laid before the country the position he and all his 
followers were prepared to take in rallying to the support of the 
Government in whatever was found necessary to prosecute the 
War to a successful conclusion, he touched a chord that awakened 
a ready response in every Canadian heart. Sir Wilfrid Laurier 
and his supporters in that Session rendered and ever since have 
rendered all possible assistance, and throughout the Dominion, 
the people irrespective of partv affiliations have in the most 
generous manner contributed in men, money and supplies to the 
cause of the Allies. 

The Government was given an absolutely free hand in the 
conduct of the War. Every facility was afforded to enable 
Canada to make the most favorable contribution to the Great 
Cause. The utmost latitude compatible with careful administra- 
tion was accorded to the Government, and in the hope that every 
effort would be made with an eye single to the main purpose, 
the people were inclined to repose the utmost confidence in Sir 
Robert Borden and his Colleagues. 

It was absolutely clear from the outset that the probabilities 
pointed to a long and expensive contest. It was also known or 
should have been known to the Government that in this, as in 
other wars, parasites, profiteers and middlemen would swarm 
around the Departments to filch from the treasury every dollar 
they could get, and for which no equivalent would be given. 
Upon the Government was laid the grave responsibiUty of exercis- 
ing the utmost care and vigilance for the protection of Canadian 
interests and in a particular sense guarding the honor of the 



country. How the Government has discharged this respons- 
ibiUty is told in part in the following pages. 

A Nation's Disgrace. 

The record is an unenviable one for a country such as ours; 
it is a disgraceful one for any nation situated as we are in relation 
to the Empire and in connection with the tremendous struggle 
for human liberty which demanded of us as never before the 
exercise of those national virtues without which a country is a 
source of weakness rather than of strength to its allies. While 
Canada was paying the price of Empire in money and blood the 
vampires were gathering in the political horizon. All too early 
did they get full opportunity to gorge themselves at the expense 
of the harrassed taxpayers of the Dominion, while the national 
guardians stood idly by, or even aided this shameful situation. 
A riot of extravagance, graft, profiteering and political maggotry 
such as Cahada had never seen, and, let us hope, never will see 
again, followed the announcement of our participation in the 
War. Not only was the money of Canada wasted but absolutely 
no protection was afforded representatives of the British ad- 
ministration purchasing goods in this country. The British 
buyers were permitted to be fleeced by the same crew as was 
operating in the Dominion under various guises. 



Interference, Intriguing, Parti- 

zanship by Cabinet Ministers 

Was Evident Early in 

the War 

In the House of Commons on January 27th, 1917, Sir Sam 
Hughes read a letter which he had addressed to the Prime Minister, 
Sir Robert Borden, on May 13th, 1915 and which contained most 
serious accusations. Sir Sam accused his colleagues of intrigue, 
partizanship and holding back the Second Contingent for 
five months. This letter is as follows: — 

Price of Goods Enhanced and Quality Inferior, Owing to 
Colleagues Interfering. 



Ottawa, May 13th, 1915. 
"Dear Sir Robert, 

"Since my return from England last November, I have repeatedly 
"notified you that owing to the interference and plans of the 'so-called' 
"sub-committee and to the repeated hold-ups and needless obstruction 



"of some of my colleagues in the affairs of this department, the Con- 
"tract branch has been very much hampered and practically blockaded; 
"delays have been very prolonged; the cost has been greatly enhanced 
"and the goods supplied have been, in many cases. Inferior. Indeed, 
"the MOST ARDENT AGENTS OF THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT 
"COULD SCARCELY HAVE BEEN MORE SUCCESSFUL IN HOLDING 
"UP THE PROPER EQUIPMENT OF OUR FORCES, HAD THEY BEEN 
"IN CONTROL. 

Second Division Held in Canada five Months on Account 

Colleagues Haggling over the Question of Paying 

Commissions to Agents on the Sale of Motor Trucks. 

"As one of many specific examples. Take the trucks for the 
"Second Division. They should have been ready last December, they 
"are not ready yet. Some of my colleagues constituted themselves 
"champions of this or that truck and brought about delays whereby 
"untried trucks would be purchased; high prices would be paid in 
"commissions to agents, and the Government, and the country, would 
**be treated practically as a retailer. My policy, as you may remember, 
"in this and in all other matters, was to force dealers to give the Govern- 
"ment wholesale, or manufacturers' rates. 

Sir Robert Borden permitted Cabinet to Block 
Requisitions for Equipment until the Quarter- 
master-General Had Grown Sick. 

"At the present time there are upwards of one hundred requisitions 
"that have long been in. The Quartermaster-General has over and 
"over and over again, until his heart has grown sick, brought them 
"before me, they have been promptly passed on to|the Director of Con- 
"tracts, and the great majority of them, when passed on to the Privy 
"Council, have been held up in Council, or by the Treasury Board, 
"laid aside or sent back — but always delayed; while the Director of 
"Contracts and his officers have unceasingly been interfered with, 
"delayed, and given endless and unnecessary work by the sub- 
"committee. 

A Shortage in Supplies and Equipment. 

"I saw, by an article in the Free Press, that it is current everywhere 
"among the soldiers and officers, that they are short of nearly every 
"class of equipment and supplies. In fact, three times recently I 
"have been severely reproached about shortages in supplies and equip- 
"ment, by outsiders w^ho had learned of these shortages from soldiers 
"and officers of the force. 

"Further, to my surprise, I was spoken to in Montreal this week, 
"and informed that our Medical units going over were only half 
**equipped,- while many of our combatant units are not properly 
"outfitted. 

"In addition to the serious aspect of the case and from the view- 
"point of the efficiency of our soldiers, there is the disheartening side. 
"It is not only unfair to the gallant boys, who are giving and willingly 
"risking their lives for the cause, and making domestic sacrifices, but 
"it is absolftitely unjust to me and my officers. 

Interference Causing Injury and Inefficiency of 
the Canadian Soldiers. 

**Therefore, as Minister of fvlilitia, I must respectfully enter my 

5 . 



"protest, as I have frequently before entered it, at the interference 
"and delays caused in all these things. It tends, not only to the injury 
"and inefficiency of our soldiers, thus jeopardizing the success of 
"British arms, but it must politically reflect seriously upon the Govern- 
**ment. 

Sub-Committee of Cabinet Given Contracts for Soldiers' 

Clothing to Manufacturers of Women's Underwear, 

Women's Blouses and Women's Corset-Makers. 

"It is charged that the sub-committee have given contracts for 
"soldiers* clothing to be made by jobbers, who sub-let them and never 
"entered a stitch themselves. Women*s linen underwear, women's 
"blouse makers, women's corset makers and truss makers, have all 
"been among these contractors. 

"We believe, we are in a position in this department to truthfully 
"say that there was never such a volume of business so successfully 
"and economically transacted, or under such an efficient system of 
"purchase and inspection, as had been developed by us up to the time 
"when I went to Europe, and when the sub-committee took control.** 

"I feel very fortunate in having under me officers, both civU and 
"military, in all the leading departments, in whom I can place absolute 
"trust. They have done nobly, under very adverse surroundings, 
"and I can conceive of no plan by which the work could haye been 
"more honestly, economically and effectively done, than was ourfc.** 

"I regret to have to submit these facts once more, but in justice 
"both to myself, as well as to the splendid gallant soldiers we are 
"endeavouring to equip for the front, I must ask your serious con- 
* *sideration of these matters." 

"I have but one desire, the upbuilding of Canada, the Empire and 
"humanity." 

"Let me hope that you will regard this letter as written with due 
"respect to myself, to my country, to you, as my leader, and in justice 
"to our soldiers." 

Faithfully, 
(Sgd.) Sam Hughes." 

Were there ever more serious charges made than those made 
by the Ex-Minister against his colleagues ? A few weeks delay in 
the supplying of this equipment may have cost our soldiers 
thousands of lives. Trucks which should have been ready in 
December, 1914, were not ready on May 13th, 1915, due to the 
fact that Ministers of the Crown could not determine the sort 
of truck to purchase or the commission which should be paid to 
agents. Necessary equipment for the soldiers had been held up 
for months. In short if German agents had been in control they 
could not have been more successful in holding up these supplies 
than this sub-committee of the Council. 

We ask if this whole thing is not too horrible to intelligently 
conceive of, and we also ask if this is an example of the mis- 
management that has been going on from the time«Canadian 
soldiers first started to enlist? Surely these accusations are 
worthy of the most serious and thorough investigation. 

It is such conditions as outlined in this letter that we 
shall expose in these pages. It is a record that should be read 



by every Canadian, regardless of party. It is an Indictment 
of our national honor, a charge against our national integrity 
that we should all resolve shall never again be made possible in 
this or any generation. 

When this story has been unfolded to the people of Canada 
those who have passed through the trials, sufferings and heart 
breaking experiences which war entails, will in no uncertain 
tone express their opinion of an administration so regardless of 
common decency and honor in the management of public affairs. 

At the outbreak of the War Sir Robert Borden was Prime 
Minister, General Sam Hughes, Minister of Militia and Defence, 
Hon. J. D. Hazen, Minister of Naval Defence and Hon. Thos. 
White, Minister of Finance. 

On these four ministers devolved chiefly the task of war 
administration, but at the same time it is clearly understood 
that the other members of the ministry are not absolved from 
responsibility. They too must share the heavy burden irk- 
some though it be. Cabinet responsibility in this country is 
established. 

The machinery at the disposal of the Government for careful 
and honest administration is sufficient if properly utilized, to 
prevent extravagance, imposition or fraud, and if the safeguards 
which through manj^" years have been adopted from time to time 
to protect the treasury had been observed millions of dollars, 
even though a war was on our hands, would have been saved. 
It is evident, however, that in the early stages of the war safe- 
guards were cast aside, regulations ignored and statutes forsaken, 
and the door thrown open to all kinds of adventurers, grafters 
and middlemen. 

The Government Started Wrong. 

The first surprising intimation in regard to the war purchases 
came from the Auditor General the statutory guardian of the 
treasury who, when writing to the Militia Department on Dec- 
ember 4th, 1914, complained that war goods amounting to 
over $1,000,000 had been purchased without orders-in- 
council as required by Law. 

Before the Public Accounts Committee on March 17th, 
1915, the Auditor General in explanation of this letter, stated, 
**The Government purchasing system was loose, irregular 
and illegal, that the practice was contrary to regulations 
and even more than that they were not in compliance 
with the Act. 

Everything by Patronage. 

Subsequently the Director of contracts in the Militia De- 
partment appeared before the Public Accounts Committee and 



on April 9th, 1915, stated: 

**From 1906 to 1911 there was not very much in 
the way of a patronage list; I was given a pretty free 
hand and I bought without much reference to any 
patronage list — There is now a patronage list. We 
buy from that list— It is a very large list now. — I sup- 
pose we have 8,000 names on that list.'* 
This is the statement of the Director of Contracts in the 
Militia Department whose sworn , evidence on this point must 
be taken as correct. 

Nothwithstanding this, however, Parliament had presented 
to it in the dying hours of the Session of 1915 the sorry spectacle 
of Major General Sir Sam Hughes the then Minister of Militia 
stating, regardless of this fact and in his bumptious manner that 
there was no patronage list in his Department. 

The evidence produced was overwhelming that there was a 
very large patronage list in the Department, and that this list 
w^as used on all suitable occasions. Not only was it used but in 
many cases middlemen were employed and each in his respective 
case drew his blood money. One instance may be cited from the 
evidence before the Public Accounts Committee given on March 
23rd, 1915, by Mr. W. J. Shaver, representative of Bauer & 
Black, of Chicago, manufacturers of Surgical Dressings, who swore 
as follows: **! saw Colonel Jones, an officer of the 

Militia Department. He said that the Government 
would not do business direct with our company. 
We were prepared to do business direct if the Govern- 
ment saw fit to do business with us as we do in other 
countries. The prices we charged Powell (the middle- 
men who added $9,000 profit) are the prices we charge 
the French, British or Russian Governments for 
hundreds of carloads of goods." 

The facts in regard to scandals as contained in the following 
pages are taken from the records of the Government or from the 
sworn evidence of the Public Accounts and other Committees. 

Horses 

The story of the purchase of horses for the first and sub- 
sequent Canadian contingents has oft been referred to in the 
House of Commons, in the Public Accounts Committee and in 
the Press. It furnishes a glaring sample of what partisanship 
and party heelers can accomplish in the way of grafting and 
misappropriation of public funds. 

At the outbreak of war the Government arranged to pur- 
chase horses. 

8,164 were purchased for the first contingent. 

398 were taken from the permanent corps in Canada. 
Making a total of 8,562 horses assembled at Valcartier for this 



contingent. Before the soldiers left for overseas service which 
was less than three weeks after these horses were assembled at 
Valcartier, out of a total of 8,562 horses, only 7,911 were con- 
sidered fit to ship to England. 

Of these misfits 651 horses purchased by **friends of the 
governement'* had died at Valcartier or were left behind by 
the First Contingent as undesirable. 

Other horses failed to stand the journey across the ocean. 

And others on reaching England were discarded and slaught- 
ered immediately on disembarking. 

Of the 7,9^11 horses which left Canada for England with the 
first contingent it is known that when the unfit ones in England 
had been weeded out only 6,700 remained fit for service. 

We quote herewith from the official Hansard of the British 
House of Commons March 10th, 1915, page 1406, the ques- 
tion that was asked in regard to Canadian horses, and also 
the reply which was made by Mr. Tennant, under-Secretary 
of State: — 

**Mr. Rendall asked the Under-Secretary of State 
for War whether he is aware that the Remount De- 
patment of the War Office have for some time sanc- 
tioned a slaughter house for horses in a wooden build- 
ing alongside the main road from Avonmouth to 
Shirehampton; whether he is aware that the stench 
from the carcasses of the dead horses is continuous 
and penetrates a considerable distance, and makes 
the use of the road and foot-path impossible without 
breathing an atmosphere which is dangerous to 
health; whether he is aware that there has been an 
epidemic of throat complaints at Avonmouth, es- 
pecially among the school children who have to pass 
and repass within a foot or two of the slaughter-house 
daily; and can he arrange for the removal of the 
slaughter-house to a spot much further removed 
from the public foot-path and highway? 

**Mr. Tennant: The slaughter-house referred to, 
which is a temporary structure, had to be erected near 
a good road with as little delay as possible for the 
reception of horses destroyed on disembarkation from 
Canada. It is 150 yards away from the nearest dwelling 
house, and every effort is being made to keep it sanitary 
Arrangements are in progress for building a road to a 
more suitable situation some distance from the main 
road.'* 

The achievements of the Borden .Government in the pur^ihase 
of horses must have left a strong odoriferous impression on the 
British people. 



$302,575.00 Lost in the Purchase of Horses. 

The weeding out of these undesirables disposed of 1,862 
horses. The Militia Department has informed the Govern- 
ment that horses purchased for this first contingent cost 
on an average $162.50. At this rate the country suffered a 
loss of $302,575.00. 

The Arch-politicians of horse purchasers seem to be Mr. A. 
Dewitt Foster, ex-M.P., for Kings County, N.S., and Mr. R. J. 
Fallis, ex-M.P.P. for Peel County, Ontario. 

Mr. Foster at the outbreak of war surrounded himself with 
some American gentlemen and also some close personal political 
friends of Kings County, N.S. to purchase horses. The Govern- 
ment placed at his disposal a large sum of money for this purpose. 
Mr. Foster signed the Government cheques in blank and handed 
them to the Secretary of the Conservative Association of Kings 
County to fill in amounts and the number of horses purchased. 
Political friends of Mr. Foster's took advantage of the opport- 
unity, the lame, the halt and the blind horses were accepted. 
Here are some of the sample purchases :-r- 

A knee sprung horse was sold to the Government for $150. 

A bone spavined horse was sold for $100. 

The Dark Bay Mare too old for the South African 
War was now sold to the Government for $130. 

A sorrel horse which was knee sprung and which a short 
time before was traded for a drake and two ducks was sold 
for $90. 

An eighteen year old horse which was not worth winter- 
ing and was going to be killed unless it was grabbed up by these 
politicians. 

The Abner Wood worth horse, 15 years old costing $50 was 
now sold for $130. 

At Berwick a horse was sold for $100 which had two spavins 
and one hip down. 

At Somerset, N.S., a horse that fell down and could not 
rise without assistance was purchased at $165. 

Another horse, eleven years o|d and badly puffed was 
sold for $160. 

Another horse which had been purchased six years 
before at $55 was sold for $180. 

^ They were all purchased through the agency of Mr. Dewitt 
Foster. 

There is evidence that not only were poor horses purchased 
but exhorbitant prices paid and that even at this the Govern- 
ment were charged higher prices than the purchasers got. 

Somebod'y Grafted. i 

When these horse purchases were being investigated by 

10 



Commissioner Sir Charles Davidson he remarked: 

''The price paid for the horses did not equal the 
amounts placed in the hands of the horse buyers.*' 

So outrageous was the conduct of the parties entrusted with 
the purchase of horses in King's County that the Premier was 
compelled to state in the House of Commons on April 15th, 1915, 
that: 

**Mr. Foster was appointed as purchasing agent 
without the knowledge or consent or approval of any 
member of the Government. I knew nothing of it 
or I should certainly have absolutely prevented his 
undertaking any such duties. The Minister of Militia 
knew nothing of it.'* 

Here the Prime Minister of Canada admits tliat a Con- 
servative member of Parliament was enabled to take $72,000 out 
of a Department to squander, in the pretence of buying horses, 
and that neither he (the Prime Minister) nor any of his colleagues 
knew anything about it. Not only was this unheard of liberty 
permitted, but to this day the Prime Minister has not com- 
pelled Mr. Dewitt Foster to file a statement as to how this money 
was spent. He simply went through the form of reading Mr. 
Foster out of the House after the glaring exposure could not 
be overlooked. 

The Purchase of Horses in Ontario. 

The purchase of horses in Peel County was little better. 
Mr. R. J. Fallis M.P.P. by some means, probably Mr. Richard 
Blain, M.P. for Peel can say, was placed in a position by the 
Government whereby all horses for sale in that locality had to 
pass through his hands. The evidence is convincing that poor 
horses in this case were also accepted, but evidence just as strong 
establishes that the middleman, Mr. Fallis, demanded his pound 
of flesh for every horse purchased. So much in fact was 
this the case that Sir Charles Davidson was constrained to 
remark **So the farmer got less and the Government paid 
more for horses as a result of your intervention.** Fallis 
admitted that such was correct. When the electors of Peel 
County had an opportunity shortly after to deal with Mr. Fallis 
they lost no time in rejecting him. 

Quebec Horses. 

The only other horse transaction, investigated was in con- 
nection with the purchase of horses at Sherbrooke, Quebec 
where Major Fletcher, one of the horse buyers, purchased three 
splendidly bred Clydesdale mares in foal, for $250, $225, and 
$190 respectively and when he had brought these mares to 
his farm he exchanged them and gave to the Government three 

11 



geldings instead. The exchange was certainly worth hundreds 
of dollars to Major Fletcher and for which the Government 
did not get a cent, and so far as known have done nothing to 
recover the amount lost. 

Taking these purchases as a sample of the way the Govern- 
ment were handling the purchase of horses through the Dominion 
it would appear that the half has not yet been told and that the 
losses to the country as between the prices paid to the farmer 
and the prices charged by the Government are enormous. 



Oliver Equipment 

Every soldier before going into the trenches is supplied with 
an equipment which can best be described as a sort of harness 
which is so made as to go over his shoulders and strapped around 
his body. This equipm^ent contains pockets and pouches, a 
water bottle, cups etc., a place for his blankets, in fact a soldier's 
full marching equipment, and is fitted in such a manner as to 
not interfere with- his movements when marching and firing 
his rifle. 

The Canadian soldiers have been supplied with what is known 
as the Oliver Equipment which is a sort of hybrid equipment 
parts of which are made of canvas and other parts of leather. 
The British War Office early in the War selected as their standard 
equipment what is known as the Webb, and all of the British, 
Belgian and Russian soldiers are supplied with this Webb equip- 
ment. 

When war was declared the manufacture of this Webb equip- 
ment who resides in Worcester, Mass., met General Sir Sam 
Hughes and some officials of the Militia Department and pointed 
out to them that as the British Government had adopted the 
Webb the Canadian Government should adopt the same equip- 
ment. This manufacturing Company from Worcester, Mass., 
gave full details of what they were prepared to do and went so 
far as to say that if they were given a substantial order they 
would come to Canada, establish a plant and manufacture this 
Webb equipment in Canada. They were informed by General 
Sir Sam Hughes that the matter would be given consideration. 

The manufacturer returned to Worcester, and later received • 
word to proceed to New York to discuss an order for Webb 
equipment for the Canadian Government. Much to his sur- 
prise on reaching New York he found that negotiations were to 
be carried on by the J. Wesley Allison combination. Being 
anxious to secure this business the manufacturer consented, and 
after details had been gone into they were given a small order for 
this Webb equipment. The price to be paid was $4.40 per set 

12 , 



the manufacturers were instructed, to ship the goods direct to 
Ottawa, but to send the bills to the office of J. Wesley Allison, 
the Manhattan Hotel, New York. 

Allison Crowd Were to Get Commission of $1.10 Per Set. 

The work was proceeded with and in a short time a ship- 
ment of these Webb equipments were made and the bills sent 
as directed. In due time the second shipment was ready, but 
the manufacturer not having been paid for his first shipment 
and not feeling any too secure in looking to the Allison crowd 
for payment had a representative come to Ottawa to look into 
the matter. This representative on reaching Ottawa discovered, 
much to his surprise, that the Government was being charged 
$5.50 for this Webb Equipment and not $4.40 the price the 
manufacturer was charging Allison and his crowd. 

Cabinet Ministers Powerless. 

The representative of this manufacturing company protested. 
The matter was eventualy brought to the attention of Sir Thomas 
White, Minister of Finance, Hon. Mr. Doherty, Minister of Justice 
and Hon. Arthur Meighen, Solicitor General, but without success, 
as these gentlemen stated they were powerless to act in the 
matter. The representative then informed the Government that 
in view of this exhorbitant Middleman's price which was being 
charged the Government, his Company would be compelled 
to in future either deal direct with the Government or cancel 
the order. They were then informed that there did not appear 
any other way to proceed except in the way already outlined. 
The manufacturers, at once, told the Government they could 
not deliver the goods under these conditions and immediately 
cancelled the order. 

The Government not being willing to buy this Webb equip- 
ment except through Allison and his gang in New York, proceeded 
to purchase from^ other manufacturers who were making what is 
known as the Oliver Equipment. Thousands and thousands 
of these Oliver Equipments have been thus manufactured and pur- 
chased by the Canadian Government. The price charged for the 
first year of the war was $6.75 and $7.25 a set. Why such an 
exhorbitant price was paid nobody knows. On leaving Canada 
the soldiers were equipped with this Oliver equipment. They 
used it in England for training purposes, but before the Can- 
adian soldiers left England for France the Oliver equipment was 
discarded and the Webb equipment supplied by the British 
Government was given to the Canadian soldiers instead. 

The Price of Every Oliver Equipment Lost. 

Thus the summing up of the whole story is that the Canadian 

i5 




Government refuses to purchase the Webb Equipment because 
the manufacturers would not permit J. Wesley Allison to take 
his blood toll of $1.10 per set. The Canadian Government went 
ahead and supplied the soldiers with an equipment which costs 
not $4.40, but $6.75 and $7.25 a set. The soldiers are sent to 
England. The Oliver equipment changed for the Webb, and 
when the British Government renders their bill to the Canadian 
Government for the care, maintenance and equipment of our 
soldiers in Great Britain the price for these Webb equipments 
will be included. Thus through the stupidity of our Canadian 
Government and their endeavor to play into Allison's hands, a 
double equipment has been purchased and will have to be paid 
for. 

There is Evidence of Graft. 

To-day there is in the hands of the Liberal leaders affidavits 
showing that commissions have been paid by one of the manu- 
facturers of this. Oliver equipment to a person closely associated 
with a Member of the Conservative Party. This may explain 
why thousands and thousands of dollars have been squandered 
on this Oliver Equipment. 

Boots 

The story of supplying boots to the Canadian soldiers at the 
commencement of the War is a disgraceful one, but quite in 
keeping with the other scandals of the Borden Government. 

8,000 or more "good boys" had to be placed on the patronage 
list of the Militia Department and naturally out of this number 
some were boot manufacturers. When the Government wanted 
boots for the soldiers they applied to these manufacturers and 
also to middlemen. The boots were made and sold to the Govern- 
ment, but at the investigation which followed it was proven 
that not only was the leather bad, but in some cases cardboard 
was substituted for leather for these boots. All sorts of 
tricks were resorted to in connection with the soles and 
heels. Pieces were glued together and covered up with 
varnish and a hundred other means of deceiving the inspec- 
tors, with the result that when the Department were com- 
pelled to appoint a Commission to investigate these shoes, 
the Commission reported that: 

''That the boot was of unsuitable shape and make 
and that the leather contained no water-resisting 
medium: 

''That the heels and soles are unprotected and 
sole-fitting is often poor quality: 

14 



''That the boot was unsuitable for the soldiers 
and for that particular work for which they were 
provided, because: 

''(a) ''The shape is such that the average foot 
has not room for the free movement of the toes and is 
thus not suitable for marching: 

(b) **The leather is dry, containing no grease, and 
consequently quickly absorbs the waters: 

(c) * 'Soles and heels not being re-inforced with 
metal, soon wear down, especially when wet." 

The middlemen also got their innings. In Winnipeg a 
senior ordnance officer purchased 3,798 pairs of boots. They 
had been manufactured in Ontario and Quebec at from $3.40 to 
$3.60 per pair who sold to the Government for $4.00 per pair. 

What has Sir Herbert Ames to Say About This? 

Quarter-Master Sergeant Wainwright of the 31st Battalion 
Calgary, before the Special Boot Committee describes the boots 
as too light and flimsy. Out of the 1,093 pairs of boots that 
came under his inspection not one dozen pairs were good. All 
the pairs that he examined and found defective he said that the 
largest percentage were made by the Gauthier Company of 
Quebec, and Ames, Holden and McCready Co., of Montreal. 
The boots were so bad that in some cases the soldiers discarded 
them and tied shingles to their feet. At Halifax the soldiers 
tied canvas bags to the soles of their boots so as to prevent 
their feet from coming through to the ground. Evidence 
proved that the health of the men had been effected on account 
of the poor quality of the boots supplied them and some had 
contracted heavy colds and had become tubercular. 

When this was all proven and the facts shown to the Country, 
the Conservative members on the Boot Commission had the 
boldness to force through by brute majority a whitewashing 
report. 



Binoculars 

In the purchase of binoculars the full effect of the Tory 
patronage system with its ever present middlemen was proven 
most conclusively. 

The Government could not or would not go direct to the 
manufacturer. Their friends had to be soothed. With the 
unfortunate middleman and his enormous profits, binoculars 
which originally sold for $9.00, $15.00, $25.00 and $28,00 cost 
the Government from $41.00 to $58.00. The channell for pur- 

15 



chasing binoculars was narrow but the profits big. The story is 
a sad one. _ ' 

Six Middlemen. 

Bausch & Lomb of New York the original makers and im- 
porters sold to Milton Harris a New York broker. Mr. Harris 
sold to Mr. Bilsky a reputable Ottawa jeweller. Bilsky offered 
to sell to the Government all the binoculars they wanted of stan- 
dard make, at $45.00 each, but he had no chance to do business 
with the Government because he was a Liberal. Mr. Bilsky 
sold to Mr. T. M. Birkett a son of a former Conservative M.P. 
from Ottawa. 

Mr. Birkett sold to Sam Hughes' "Good Boys" namely 
P. W. Ellis & Co of Toronto who sold to the Government after 
charging a 10% commission for handling the goods and Sir Sam 
said that he was very sorry that he had not allowed these "Good 
Boys" P. W. Ellis Co., a 20% profit. 

Thus it will be seen that from the manufacturer to the dealer 
six middlemen received their blood toll. 

But that is not the worst feature. The binoculars were not 
of a stipulated quality. They were for the use of Canadian offi- 
cers and on the accuracy and power of the glasses might easily 
depend the lives of whole companies of Canadian soldiers. If 
an officer is furnished a poor binoculars, which is worse than 
nothing, the soldier suffers. In this case however, the soldier 
was given the second consideration and the middleman 
had the preference. 

Read the report which was passed by the Public Accounts 
Committee and presented to the House of Commons which is 
as follows: 

**From the evidence it appears a number of bino- 
cular glasses were of poor quality, low range and in- 
ferior efficiency, but passed inspection and were paid 
for at excessive prices; and this was due to misre- 
presentation and inadequate inspection." 



Motor Trucks 

The purchase of motor trucks for the various contingents 
of the Overseas Forces reeks with graft, middlemen's profits, 
commissions and delays which were in evidence even before 
the war broke out. The channels for corrupt practice seemed 
to be well opened in the Militia Department, where we find that 
a gentleman by the name of Mr. J. H. McQuarrie had been 
selling his influence with Sir Sam Hughes in order that the 
might get an order from the Militia Department for motor 

16 



trucks. Here is a copy of the receipt which Mr. McQuarrie 
gave when selling his influence: 

** Received from Wylie Limited on April 22nd, 
1912, $1,200, for my influence with Col. Sam. Hughes, 
Minister of Department of Militia and Defence in 
securing from the Department an order for three 
Gramm Motor Trucks. This is in accordance with 
agreement with your company, February 19th, 1912. 

(Signed) J. H. McQuarrie.'' 
And it will be noted that when War broke out and the 
Government wanted to purchase a great number of motor trucks 
for the army this same Mr. McQuarrie who was the protege 
and political henchman of Sir Sam Hughes was called to 
the Department and practically given control of the purchase 
of these motor trucks. 

Read the letter which Sir Sam Hughes gave to McQuarrie 
and his partner on that occasion: 

**Dear Sirs: — I have pleasure in commissioning 
you to select for me, for the Department of Militia 
and Defence, using your best judgment, as many 
motor trucks as you can conveniently secure, up to 
twenty-five (25) to be delivered at Valcartier, Quebec, 
by the end of two weeks from to-day — the 28th instant. 
I shall be obliged if you will also supply us with 
chauffeurs for these trucks. 

Faithfully, 
(Signed) Sam Hughes." 
But the worst was yet to come. 

The Liberal Members in the House of Commons in the 
Public Accounts Committee exposed this man McQuarrie and 
the selling of his influence, and it must be fairly admitted 
that the amount of money to be expended on motor trucks for 
the War was too large to permit Sir Sam and his close friends 
to have full say as to who should, and who should not get com- 
missions when purchasing these motor trucks. The other 
Members of the Borden Government evidently interfered with 
this to such an extent as to annoy Sir Sam with the result that 
on May 13th, 1915, Sir Sam wrote Sir Robert Borden as follows: 
**Take the trucks for the Second Division. They 
should have been ready last December, they are not 
ready yet. Some of my colleagues constituted them- 
selves champions of this or that truck and brought 
about delays whereby untried trucks would be pur- 
chased; high prices would be paid in commissions 
to agents, and the Government, and the country, 
'would be treated practically as a retailer." 
And to this day no member of the Government has attempted 
to deny what Sir Sam stated on that occasion. We know, 
according to statements of Sir Robert Borden and Sir Sam 

' 17 



Hughes in the House of Commons that these motor trucks have 
been discarded on reaching England and not permitted to go 
across into France, a loss to the country of hundreds of thous- 
ands of dollars. 



Ross Rifle 



Much has been written and stated in regard to the Ross 
Rifle. No better summing up of the whole situation can be 
given than the statement which was made by the Hon. Frank 
Oliver in the House of Commons on Monday, February 5th, 
1917 in the following words: 

** After we, Canada, have paid to the amount of 
$6,500,000 for Ross Rifles made in Canada, not one 
battalion, not one platoon of Canadian troops at the 
front is armed with that rifle, after two and a half 
years of war. 

**The question of the furnishing of our troops 
with what is called small arms, with rifles, is the most 
important question with which we have to deal; but 
we are dealing to-day with a vote of $500,000,000 ap- 
propriated in bulk for expenditure by this Govern- 
ment, for the support of Canada's part in the war, and 
on the most vital point in all this vast expenditure. 
We find the result that I have already stated, that we 
have spent $6,500,000 and we practically have not a 
rifle in the firing line, and we are being called upon 
to-night to vote, if my hon. friend presses his motion, 
to pay $2,660,000 for rifles that are not yet manufact- 
ured and that will never see the front after they are 
manufactured. This is a far reaching matter. If 
such is the record of the Government on this the most 
important feature connected with the war so far 
as we are concerned, what are we to believe in regard 
to the other phases which involve the whole of this 
stupendous expenditure? 

The incompetency exhibited by the Government in the 
handling of this rifle, the forcing of it upon the soldiers in the 
trenches, the thousands of men who have been killed from the 
result of this is a serious matter and one for which the Govern- 
ment will be brought sternly to account. 

Cancelled Order for a Rejected Rifle Because 
Delivers Were to Slow. 

And now the Government have cancelled the contract and 
the reason given for so-doing was *Hhat the Ross Company 

18 



are not delivering these rejected Ross Rifles fast enough." 

Just think of it had the Ross Rifle been delivered faster the 
contract would have gone on. 

Clinical Thermometers 

At the outbreak of war the Militia Department bought from 
Mr. T. A. Brownlee, Druggist in Ottawa, 962 clinical thermo- 
meters. Mr. Brownlee charged $1.00 each for these thermo- 
meters and received a cheque from the Government on August 
21st, 1914 for $702 and on October 29th, 1914 for the $260. 

The case was so brazen and the charges so exorbitant that 
the story of these purchases created considerable comment. 
On February 10th Mr. William Chisholm, Liberal M.P. for 
Antigonish N.S. asked for details in regard to the purchase of 
these clinical thermometers and was told that $1.00 each had 
been paid but that subsequently Mr. Brownlee discovered an 
error in his charge and refunded half of this money, making the 
net price of these thermometers .50 each. 

Mr. Chisholm pressed his question and elicited the further 
information that Mr. Brownlee only discovered the error and only 
niade the refund on February 11th the next day after 
Mr. Chisholm had originally made enquiry in the House 
in regard to this purchase. Matters were becoming warm and 
Mr. Brownlee evidently decided that it was time to disgorge. 

In addition to this transaction Mr. Brownlee supplied the 
Government with over $25,000 worth of orders. One order for 
medicine boxes amounting to S12,750. No tenders were asked, 
no competition sought, the ^Government simply ordered the 
goods and Mr. Brownlee filled in the price. 

Later on when the Government were forced to buy these 
medical boxes direct from the wholesale dealers it was found 
that they could be purchased for fifty percent less than charged 
by Mr. Brownlee. 

Field dressings 

Field dressings, bandages, lints, salves etc. for wounded 
Canadian soldiers had to pay the usual blood toil. 

They had to be purchased through a Tory middleman. 
This middleman was at first supposed to be a young man by the 
name of Powell in the employ of Mr. W. F. Garland, ex-M.P. 
for Carleton County, Ont., but it was afterwards discovered that 
the real culprit was Mr. Garland himself who was reaping the 
profit, practically selling the goods to the Government although 
under the Independence of Parliament Act. A member of 

19 



Parliament is absolutely prohibited from doing this The result 
was that after the exposure, but not before, Mr. Garland was 
compelled to resign his seat as member of the House of Commons. 
The manufacturers of these field dressings, Messrs. Bauer and 
Black wanted and expected to do the business direct with the 
Government, the same as this firm have always done with all 
the Government in the World. But they could not do the 
business direct. They were told so according to the evidence 
of their representative, Mr. Shaver before the Public Accounts 
Committee on March 23rd, 1915, who stated as follows: 

**We were prepared to do business direct if the 
Government saw fit to do business with us as we do 
in other countries/' 

**I went to see Colonel Jones, of the Militia De- 
partment and he said that the Government would 
, not do business direct with our Company. 

The Public Accounts Committee after investigating this 
matter on March 26th passed the following resolutions: 

**The Committee begs to report to the House the 
evidence adduced in respect to the contract for sup- 
plies purchased from Mr. E. Powell and to express its 
opinion that the contracts for such supplies do not 
appear to have fully protected the public interests; 
and the committee therefore recommend that the 
evidence adduced and all papers connected with the 
matter should be referred by the House to the Depart- 
ment of Justice for any further necessary investiga- 
tion and for the recovery of any moneys overpaid and 
the taking of such further action as may be warranted 
by the facts.*' 

Other Drugs and Medical 
Supplies 

Mr. Garland was not the only druggist in Canada. The 
young Nationalist member, Mr. Albert Sevigny, then Deputy 
Speaker of the House of Commons, now Minister of Inland 
Revenue of the Borden Government, had a sister by the name of 
Mde. G. P. Plamondon of Quebec, the owner of a drug store. 

This Nationalist member who in 1911 would not permit 
of Canada taking any part in Britain's wars could in 1914 recom- 
mend that his sister Mdme. Plamondon be permitted to sell 
war drugs and war medical supplies to the Government. The 
bill amounted to approximately $23,200. 

The various items were investigated before the Public 
Accounts Committee. It was shown that the profit on these 
goods to Mdme. Plamondon varied from 70% to 200% and even 

20 



in some cases to 300%. When figuring these percentages an 
allowance was made for any increase of prices owing to the war. 
Before the Public Accounts Committee Mdme. Plamondon 
stated that her brother, Mr. Sevigny had got her name placed 
upon the" Government patronage list and Mr. Sevigny also stated 
that he had asked that the payment for these accounts be ex- 
pedited. 



Submarines 



One of the first actions of the Borden Government in con- 
nection with the War was to purchase two submarines for the 
defence of our Pacific Coast. 

Coast was Unprotected. 

The coast was entirely without protection because there was 
no Canadian Navy to protect it, one of the armed cruisers which 
had been purchased from the British Government by the Laurier 
Government having been dismantled by the Borden Govern- 
ment. It was known that there was a squadron of German 
cruisers in South American waters that might easily make a dash 
for Victoria, Vancouver and Prince Rupert before British or 
Japanese warships in the Pacific could head them off. 

Thus, at the very outbreak of hostilities, actual war demon- 
strated to the Canadian people the need of a Canadian navy in 
Canadian waters, to protect Canadian coasts and Canadian 
shipping. 

Boats Rejected as no Good. 

It was under these circumstances that the Borden Govern- 
ment undertook to make up for the lack of a Canadian Navy 
by going to Seattle where they purchased two submarines which 
had been built by the Electric Boat Company of New Jersey for 
the Chilean Government but were rejected by the Naval Com- 
mission of the Chilean Government, as being unfit for service, 
lacking buoyancy and considerably out of date as to style and 
pattern. 

The following is an extract from a statement which Capt. 
Plaza, Chairman of the Chilean Naval Commission, gave to the 
Press, and which was published in the Seattle Sunday Times of 
July 26, 1914.— 

**I can only confirm the report you have, that the 
two submarines built here for my government have 
not been accepted and that at this time they do not 
meet the full requirements of the contract between 
the Government of Chile and the Electric Boat Com- 

21 



pany of New Jersey." 

Commenting on this statement by the Chilean expert, the 
Seattle Times said : 

**It is apparent however, that aside from the dis- 
covery that the two submarines lack the proper buoy- 
ancy to make certain their safety and efficiency, they 
are considerably out of date as to style and pattern. 
They were designed several years ago, and, it is known 
they do not compare with the type of submarines now 
building here and elsewhere for the United States 
Government. In fact, it is understood, were the two 
submarines satisfactory in point of saJFety and effic- 
iency, they would scarcely measure up in standards 
of destructive power, speed and other requirements 
to the submarines recently built or on the ways in 
various ship yards of the country." 

An Enormous Price Paid. 

The contract price which the Chilean Governement agreed 
to pay for these boats when completed, on or about August 1st, 
1914, was $818,000 as ascertained when Sir Charles Davidson 
investigated at Victoria the purchase of submarines. The 
Canadian Government stepped in and with the aid of Sir Richard 
McBride paid not the contract price $818,000 for these boats, 
but $1,150,000 or an increase of $332,000, for a pair of "rejected," 
"out of date as to style and pattern" and "lacking buoyancy" 
submarines. The Government undertook to make no defence 
of this transaction, simply stating that Sir Richard McBride 
had acted in the matter and that he had to be reimbursed to the 
extent of $1,150,000. 

How was the money paid? 

Before the Public Accounts Committee March 31st, 1915, 
the Auditor General swore that three drafts were drawn as 
follows: 

No. 15862 on the Canadian Bank of Commerce, 

N.Y $500,000,00 

No. 15883 on the Canadian Bank of Commerce, 

N.Y 399,437.00 

No. 84894 on the Canadian Bank of Commerce, 

Seattle 249,961.00 

Two of these drafts aggregating $900,000, went to New York 
where the boats were built, and $250,000 remained in Seattle. 
This $250,000 was made payable to J. V. Patterson, the gentle- 
man who negotiated the sale. Notwithstanding the fact that 
Sir Charles Davidson has exonerated the Government from any 
wrong-doing in this matter does it look reasonable that the 
whole of this $250,000 should remain in Seattle? 

22 



Purchase of Revolvers and 

Pistols by the Militia 

Department 

At the outbreak of the War the Militia Department required 
a lot or revolvers and pistols. At that time Sir Sam Huges' 
handy man, **guide, counsellor and friend J. Wesley Allison" 
was authorized to purchase these articles. He proceeded with 
the work and- in due time delivery was made but much to the 
surprise of the Auditor General the price paid was exhorbitant. 
The Auditor General knew perfectly well that $18.50 for these 
automatic pistols was excessive, and consequently opened up 
negotiations with the Department of Militia to ascertain why 
such prices were paid. The Auditor General first satisfied him- 
self that $14,00, was a fair price, and one at which any retailer 
in Canada could purchase the pistols. He also ascertained that 
the New York State Government were buying thousands of 
these very same pistols at $14.00 each. The whole matter was 
referred to Sir Charles Davidson. On January 3rd, 1916, Gen. 
Sir Sam Hughes appeared before Sir Charles Davidson and made 
the following statement: 

**I may say that the British Government and the 
Canadian Government as well, are in every sense 
under a. deep obligation to Colonel Allison for his 
services. He never charged one cent yet for the trans- 
fer of thousands and tens of thousands of dollars 
worth of stuff across the river. I do not know how he 
did it, but I know that it was done, and he has never 
rendered his bill yet, so that anything he had done has 
been a labour of love." 

The same date J. Wesley Allison gave evidence under oath 

and the following is a pertinent extract from the evidence taken: 

Q. — Or are you the agent of any Company who sold 

any revolvers or pistols to the Canadian Government? 

A.— No. 

Q. — Did you profit by way of commission on any 
revolvers or pistols that were sold to the Canadian 
Government or to the Department of Militia and 
Defence? A. — No, sir. 

Q. — Not in any way? A. — No. 
Q. — Neither directly or indirectly? A. — No. 
These two ordinary statements would make any ordinary 
person believe that Allison did not receive any commission for 
negotiating for these pistols. The pistols were bought from the 
Colts Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Co., of Hartford, Conn., 
Mr. Samuel M. Stone who is Vice-President of this Company 
happened to be in Ottawa on February 13th, 1916, and Com- 

23 



missioner Sir Charles Davidson took this opportunity of putting 
him under oath and asking him a few questions. The following 
is an extract from this evidence: 

Sir Charles Davidson: — In connection specifically 
with these purchases (pistols and revolvers?) 

Mr. Stone: — We have given to Colonel Allison 
sums of money for his general services. 

Mr. Charles Davidson: — In connection with 
government work? 

Mr. Stone: — In connection with government work 
at large. 

Sir Charles Davidson: — Define what you mean by 
the words **at large.'*? & 

Mr. Stone: — Throughout Europe and this con- 
tinent. 

Later on Sir Charles Davidson asked: 

Sir Charles Davidson :— Had he (Colonel Allison 
anything to do with securing for your Company these 
contracts with the Canadian Government? 

Mr. Stone: — As I explained at the outset, Colonel 
Allison was used largely by the Canadian Government 
as a means of assisting them in getting arms. COL- 
ONEL ALLISON WAS SUGGESTED TO US FOR THAT 
PURPOSE AT THE OUT-START. 

* Thus we find that Allison as usual received the blood money 
for purchasing these pistols and with the full consent and authority 
of Sir Sam Hughes, Minister of Militia and Defence. 

Morrisburg Customs Port 
Thrown Open. 

Minister of Customs Tells One Story, Sworn 
Evidence Proves the Contrary. 

If there is one man in Canada who holds an unenviable 
reputation it is J. W. Wesley Allison, in fact wherever his name 
appears one immediately inhales the gas of graft and corruption 
and middlemen's profits. 

At the outbreak of War he was taken up by Sir Sam Hughes 
as his ^'confidential friend, counsellor and guide,*' he was 
in fact the right-hand man of the Minister of Militia. Anything 
that the Department wanted to purchase Col. J. Wesley Allison 
was the man to purchase it, and to this day, and in this pamphlet 
there is no evidence to prove that J. Wesley Allison ever bought 
5c worth of material for the Government that he did not take 
his blood toll. 

24 



Customs Port Wide Open. 

One of the worst scandals of the whole action of the Govern- 
ment in this matter was the throwing wide open of the port of 
Customs at Morrisburg to permit Allison and his gang to bring in 
thousands and thousands of pounds of truck either for or which he 
was trying to sell to the Canadian Government. Evidence 
before the Public Accounts Committee in March 1916 proved 
conclusively that Allison brought in military clothes, uniforms 
and boots and shoes, and that he had a suite of rooms in Morris- 
burg for the purpose of changing the labels attached to these 
goods and then forward them on to Ottawa. He also brought 
in shovels, revolvers and pistols. No entry was made and no 
customs duties charged, the port was wide open for anything that 
Allison brought along. 

The Hon. Mr. Reid, Minister of Customs Should Think 
Twice Before Speaking. 

The Public Accounts Committee was investigating, and the 
Government saw that their deeds were to be exposed, when along 
came the Minister of Customs Hon. J. D. Reid who was respon- 
sible for the opening of the Port and told the Public Accounts 
Committee that the Port was not open wide, for the free entry 
of Allison's goods. And then the Minister of Customs undertook 
to smooth the whole matter over by stating that the only thing 
that it was intended to bring in at this Port was the Sifton Gun 
Battery. 

Here are the words which the Hon. Mr. Reid, Minister of 
Customs used : 

**Captain Sif ton's father was making a large 
contribution to this Machine Gun Battery, and he 
went to the Commissioner of Customs and asked 
permission to bring them over at a point to be named 

afterwards." 

**With reference to this case at Morrisburg all I want 
the Committee to know, and all I want the public to 
understand is, that the application was made by 
Captain Sifton to Commissioner McDougald for the 

goods he was bringing in at that time." 

**Outside of that I never heard of any permission or 
application for any goods to be brought into Morris- 
burg except those connected with Mr. Sifton's Ma- 
chine Gun Battery." 

Sifton's Battery Came Into Canada at Cornwall. 

The Minister of Customs stated this and expected the 
country to believe it, but a few days later on March 22nd, 1916, 

25 



Mr. Brookins the express agent of the New York Central Road, 
whose line enters Canada at Cornwall was placed on the witness 
stand and swore that the Sifton Battery did not come in at 
Morrisburg at all, but that it came into Canada over the New 
York Central Railway at the Port of Cornwall. 

Thus we find that the Minister of Customs misled the Public 
Accounts Committee and as yet he has never made any satis- 
factory explanation as to why the Port of Customs at Morrisburg 
was opened to J. Wesley Allison. 



Shield-Shovels 

A young lady stenographer, private secretary to Sir Sam 
Hughes patented the shield-shovel. The Government pur- 
chased $33,750 worth of these shovels and to this day they have 
not been used and are not of any value to the soldiers, an absolute 
misappropriation of funds to the extent of $33,750 to satisfy the 
egotistical whims of Sir Sam Hughes. 

The Shovels were Discarded in Favor of One of Service 

Pattern. 

In the British House of Commons on Thursday March 11th, 
1915, the question was asked by Mr. MacVeagh in regard to the 
McAdam shovels. 

Question: — Mr. MacVeagh asked whether the 
McAdam spades with which the Canadian soldiers 
were supplied at Salisbury Plains have been discarded ; 
and, if so, under what circumstances. 

Answer: — Mr. Tenant (Under Secretary of State 
for War.) It is necessary that the entrenchement im- 
plement should be carried on the person, and as the 
Canadian troops had no means of doing this with their 
spade, the Service pattern with the appropriate fit- 
ment was issued to them. (See British Parliamentary 
debates, Thursday March 11th, 1915.) 
The ludicious excuses of Sir Sam for foisting this worthless 
shovel with a hole in it upon the Canadian Forces at an absolutely 
unjustificable expense — suggest the antics of a circus clown. 



Camp Grounds 

The special delight of the Minister of Militia of the Borden 
Government, seems to have been in spending money on camp 
grounds. In 1914 when the War broke out there were distributed 



throughout Canada 365,000 acres of camp grounds as follows: — 



Aldershot, N.S ' ^ 966 acres 

Sussex, N.B..: 300 " 

Farnham, P.Q 1,318 " 

Three Rivers, P.Q 306 " 

Levis, P.Q 1,248 " 

Petawawa, Ont 70,400 " 

Barriefield, Ont 788 " 

Niagara, Ont 656 " 

Carling Heights, Ont., near London 80 " 

Camp Hughes, Man 90,000 '' 

Moose Jaw, Sask., remount depot training 

grounds 62,269 " 

Medicine Hat, Alta, remount depot and 

training area 124,000 *' 

Sarcee Camp, Alta., and Vernon, B.C., 

areas not given 

Kamloops, B.C., Tunkwa Lake 5,760 " 

One of the finest camp grounds in the Dominion centrally 
located was Petawawa with an area, as shown in this list, of 70,400 
acres; one of the finest artillery ranges in existence was already 
established there; the necessary equipment for housing thousands 
and thousands of soldiers; an excellent training ground, but Sir 
Sam Hughes and the Government thought this was of no avail. 
The moment war broke out Valcartier Camp had to be established. 
Money and time was lavishly spent putting it into shape. The 
soldiers were rushed there to complete their training on a camp 
ground half finished. Everything was in a turmoil. Millions 
of dollars were spent. Huts, houses and palaces were built. 
32,000 soldiers drilled there for approximately four weeks and 
then were sent to England. 

It was stated that Valcartier was going to be the large 
central camp of the Dominion, but from that day to this not 
more than 15,000 soldiers have ever camped at Valcartier at one 
time. 

Camp Borden. 

During the Summer of 1915 the Government had another 
**wild cat scheme*' placed before them by someone, namely, 
to establish another large central camp in Simcoe County, Ont., 
to be known as Camp Borden. Here again over 17,000 acres 
were purchased. Millions of dollars were spent in getting this 
into shape. Long before the Camp was ready for occupation 
battalions were rushed to it from London, Toronto, Niagara 
and from other Ontario points. The soldiers were unanimous 
in their condemnation of the place. It had appropriately been 

27 



like a miner coming out of a mine. Cooking tents and utensils 
were covered with dust. The soldiers were compelled to eat 
their food covered with this dust, but notwithstanding this they 
were forced to remain there until they went overseas or the Winter 
of 1917 forced them out. 

To show the extravagance and absolute foolishness of es- 
tablishing Camp Borden, it can be stated without fear of con- 
tradiction that Valcartier capable of accomodating at least 
50,000 soldiers, except for the first year, not more than 15,000 
Before it could be used as a camp ground a million stumps had 
to be burned or dug out. The soldier coming off parade looked 
described as the sandy desert filled with pit-falls of black ashes, 
were ever camped there at a time. Petawawa capable of ac- 
comodating from 75,000 to 100,000 yet not more than from 5,000 
to 10,000 soldiers ever camped there at any time during the last 
two years. 

Niagara Camp one of the best in the Country Was only 
accomodating one-third the number of soldiers which she was 
capable of accomodating. 

London Camp was absolutely abandoned, and scores of 
other small camp grounds throughout Canada were practically 
abandoned also. One of the darkest spots in the record of the 
Borden Government is the absolute waste and extravagance 
of the expenditure of the Government on these two camp grounds, 
Valcartier and Camp Borden. 

Lumber for Militia Department 
in Ottawa 

In the winter of 1915 the Militia Department required some 
lumber in connection with the housing of the soldiers in and 
around Ottawa. Ottawa is the home of wholesale lumber dealers. 
Millions of feet of lumber could be bought at any time from the 
wholesale dealers in Ottawa. When the Government wanted 
it, however,' they went to a middleman, Mr. W. R. McGee brother 
of the law partner of the Conservative member for Ottawa, Mr. 
A. E. Fripp. 

Mr. McGee supplied the lumber taking his blood toll of 
$1.25 per thousand feet. Mr. McGee never saw the lumber, 
never raised his finger to assist in the delivery; simply took the 
order, sent in his bill, accepted the middleman's profit and waited 
for more. 

Burning of Clothing 

Considerable criticism has been heard in regard to the 
quantities of clothing which were burned at the closing of Val- 

28 



cartier camp in the Fall of 1914 and at Camp Borden in the Fall 
of 1916. 

The Public Accounts Committee have not had time to in- 
vestigate in regard to the wastage at Camp Borden, but in regard 
to the wastage at Valcartier Mr. Adam Aitken of Valcartfer in 
the Public Accounts Committee in 1915 swore that he saw ]»iles 
of clothes being burnt at Valcartier. He and some of his frmeds 
offered $5.00 a piece for some of the coats, but the werk of des- 
truction was continued and the clothing burnt. Mr. Aitken 
swore that he saw eight or nine piles of clothing and blankets 
burning and that in his judgment there were at least 200 or 300 
coats and blankets in each pile. He als@^saw good caps being 
burnt up. 

At Camp Borden similar rumors are in circulation. From 
absolutely well informed people it is stated that scores and scores 
of tent floors were piled up and burnt last Fall. A Ford Auto- 
mobile which had done good service and was in good repair was 
run on to a pile of burning material and burned. It is also 
stated that provisions were destroyed. 



The Lindsay Arsenal 

Apart altogether as to whether it was advisable or not to 
build a large arsenal at Lindsay, Ontario, no conscientious person 
will defend the action of the Governemnt in the procedure followed 
in awarding the contract. No tenders were called for, no com- 
petition asked. The Westinghouse, Church Kerr Company of 
New York were given a forced contract, plus 10% of the cost 
in other words the more the contractors made the building 
cost, the more the contractors received. 

From the outset Mr. John Carew, M.P.P. for Victoria, 
whose home is in Lindsay, seemed to be **the man on the job." 
He was an ever present person in time of need. When the 
contractors needed men, John Carew was asked to O.K. them, 
and if by chance a Liberal who was not persona grata to John 
Carew, secured a job he held it only for a day or two. Practically 
everything required in the way of material had to be o.k'd by 
this Provincial Member. Even some of the massive and 
valuable machinery which was to be installed in the 
Arsenal was shipped into Lindsay addressed to John 
Carew. In fact John Carew M.P.P. was an understudy 
of Sir Sam Hughes. 

While American engineers and architects were employed 
mistakes in construction were in evidence everywhere. Before 
the building was half completed gangs of men were at work on 
various parts making alterations. American employees, such 
as carpenters, labourers etc., were brought in from Buffalo. 

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American carpenters were paid 55c an hour with their board and 
fare paid, while Canadians received only 40c to 45c an hour and 
boarded themselves. American Labour was treated better and 
given higher pay in every class of work than received by Can- 
adian workmen. The whole system seemed to be more expense 
the better. 

Purchase of American Horses 
in Preference to Canadian 
^Horses. 

One of the grave accusations which the Borden Government 
will have to face when it makes an appeal to the country is that 
in the purchase of horses for the Canadian and British armies, 
they have permitted the horse buyers to neglect Canada and go 
to the United States for the major portion of these horses. 

When the War broke out the Borden Government undertook 
to purchase horses. They found that they could not control 
their partisan horse buying friends throughout the country, 
with the result that shortly after, the Imperial authorities un- 
dertook to purchase all horses necessary for the equipment 
of the Canadian forces. The result is that Parliament has been 
unable to get any definite information as to just how these 
purchases have been made but the fact remains that Can- 
adian horses have been refused and American horses taken 
in preference. There is in Canada an abundant supply 
of good first class army horses as is evidenced by the fact 
that even up to the present time the French Government 
are purchasing some here. 

Nickel 

Volumes have been written in regard to Canadian Nickel 
reaching Germany. The question, except in time of war, is 
one for the Provincial Governments to deal with. In time of 
War, however, when Canadians are making every effort to assist 
the Allies, the exportation of nickel to Germany is a serious 
matter. That it has been reaching Germany since the War 
broke out is a fact. On February 22nd, 1916, in the House of 
Commons Col. John Currie, Conservative Member of Parliament 
spoke as follows: 

**Why, the German guns that fired sheels at my 
soldiers and myself day after day in Flanders, were 
made of Canadian nickel and chrome steel. The 
rifles that fired at us had .barrels that were made out of 

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Canadian nickel steel. Every one of them was stamped 
''Nickel steely" but they should have borne the motto 

**mined in Canada." 

"If we deprive the Germans of our nickel, their pre- 
dominence as an arm producing country will cease 
for ever." 

At that time Col. Currie said a great deal more than Hansard 
reports and added **that every bullet shot out of German 
rifles was capped with Canadian nickel, but for some reason 
this statement does not appear in Hansard. What are the facts. 
It is known that nickel mined in Sudbury in 1915, shipped 
in matte to the International Nickel Company, New Jersey, 
which refined it and sold some 800 odd tons to a smelting Company 
in New Jersey. This smelting Company have already sent to 
Germany, via the submarine Deutchland 200 tons of this Can- 
adian nickel. Another 100 tons is lying in New London now 
awaiting the Deutchland which for reason "is detained." This 
smelting Company now have in their warehouse in New Jersey 
another 500 tons which will be sent to Germany at the very first 
opportunity. 

These are facts which cannot be contradicted if the truth 
is told and yet Conservative headquarters at Ottawa are saying 
that Canadian nickel is not reaching Germany." 



Bicycles 



When the Government started to purchase bicycles at the 
outbreak of War, communications were sent them from Bicycle 
manufacturers who were willing to supply bicycles in lots of 50 
to 100 at $34.00 each, and at a less price for an order of 1,000 
bicycles or more. The Government did not even acknowledge 
this communication from a Toronto manufacturer, but went 
ahead and purchased bicycles to the extent of 1,200 and paid 
for each one from $55.00 to $62.00 each. By this transaction 
alone the Government lost over $28,000. 



Housewives 



Purchased without tender from the President of the Ottawa 
Conservative Association. 

A housewife is a small piece of cloth arranged as to be tied up 
and contains threads, needles, twist, darning needles, darning 
cotton, etc. Each soldier is supposed to have one of these utility 
packages in his equipment. Without asking for tenders and 
without securing any competitive prices, the Government got 
into communication with Mr. Stewart McClenaghan of Ottawa, 
the owner and proprietor of the 2-Macs store and President of 
the Conservative Association for Ottawa, and asked him to give 
a price for supplying housewives. He quoted 53 ^c each and 
was immediately given an order for 30,000. In the following 

31 



three months this was increased to 100,000, and the same price 
53 ^c each was maintained. 

According to Mr. McClenaghan's own statement his profit 
on these goods had been 24%, 16% of which he had charged to 
overhead expenses and 8% to clear profit. On April 13th, Mr. 
T. McNichol of the J. M. Garland Company, Ottawa, refused to 
produce their original invoices to show what they had paid for 
these goods. Why? 

The Premier's Statement in 
Regard to Scandal 

Much has been said of the stand taken by the Prime Minister 
Sir Robert Borden in regard to graft and scandal and what he 
would do to those who were guilty of extorting middlemen's 
profits out of the blood money of Canada. 

In the House of Commons on April 15th, he made a grand 
stand appeal as to what he was going to do. He practically read 
two Members out of the Conservative Party, Mr. Dewitt Foster, 
M.P., of Kings Co. N.S., and Mr. Garland, M.P. for Carleton 
County, Ont. He went on to show how the doors of the jails 
were yawning for just such men as these who had exploited the 
money of the country for their own personal gain. At this time 
Sir Robert Borden had before him the report on the rotten 
boots which were supplied the soldiers. He had in his hand the 
report from the Quarter-Master Sergeant who stated that all 
the boots that he had examined and found defective the largest 
percentage had been made by Gauthier of Quebec, and Ames 
HoMen and McCready Co., of Montreal, but Sir Robert has 
not to this day made any effort to castigate any of these boot 
manufacturers, notwithstanding that the Mr. Ames referred to 
in this company, is a Member of the House of Commons ? 

The middlemen who purchased binoculars; the 
middlemen who made money by purchasing horses; the 
middlemen who took the blood toll out of the submarines; 
out of the motor trucks; out of the land deals; out of the 
rotten boots; out of the drugs and medicines and bandages, 
and scores of other things have all remained free citizens 
and the gates of the penetentiaries are still yawning. 

But Sir Robert must have forgotten that less than 4 months 
previously he had accepted as his candidature for Carleton, N.B. 
the Hon. J. K. Flemming of New Brunswick, who had been 
kicked out of the Premiership of New Brunswick because he was 
proven guilty by a Royal Commission of extorting monies, through 
an agent, from timber limit holders in that Province. Is Sir 
Robert Borden making fish of one candidate and flesh of another, 
or is he playing the game of Politics. 

Issued by the Centra! Liberal information Office, Ottawa, Ont. 

32